Biomedika <p style="text-align: justify;">JURNAL<strong> BIOMEDIKA</strong> is a peer-reviewed open access journal covers basic and advance research in biomedical science, with focus on the biomedical laboratory science and technology research. The journal is published by the Faculty of Health Sciences, Setia Budi University to promote scientific writing and dissemination of knowledge in biomedical laboratory science and technology. Scientific community are encouraged to submit original research articles and reviews with topicsincluding but not limited to clinical chemistry, hematology, cytohistology, immunoserology, microbiology, toxicology, molecular biology, biochemistry, chemical biology, and food analysis. J. Biomedika is open for submission all year round, and published semiannually.&nbsp;This journal also has become a CrossRef Member&nbsp;since March 2019. Therefore, all articles published by this journal will have unique DOI number.&nbsp;<strong>JURNAL BIOMEDIKA&nbsp;</strong>(<em>p-ISSN:</em><em>1979-035X</em><em>, e-ISSN:&nbsp;</em><em>2302-1306</em>) has been published since 2008. Research articles published in the early 2008 that are not listed on this website have been stored on this link&nbsp;<strong></strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Editorial Office :</strong><br><strong>Faculty of Health Sciences&nbsp;<br>Setia Budi University, Surakarta, Indonesia&nbsp;</strong></p> Fakultas Ilmu Kesehatan Universitas Setia Budi Surakarta en-US Biomedika 1979-035X Relations of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) Expression and E-Cadherin (CDH1) Expression in Breast Cancer Patients <p>The aim of this study is to analyze the relations of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) expression and E-Cadherin (CDH1) expression in breast cancer patients. To date, the synergistic effect of this CDH1/HER2 complex is not well clarified. The design of this study was cross-sectional with a total sample of 56 formalin-fixed paraffin tissue blocks that had been examined for HER2. Furthermore, CDHI expression was examined using the Immunohistochemistry staining technique with the Labeled Streptavidin Biotin Complex (LSAB) method. Bivariate analysis was performed using the Spearman correlation test with abnormally distributed data (p&gt;0.05). Of the 56 data on breast cancer patients, most of the patients (87.5%) were diagnosed at the age of ≥40 years. The majority of cancer staging was IIIB, which was 42.9% of the total 56 patients. The study results shows that 80.0% of HER2-positive patients were in the strong CDH1 group. From these data, there is evidence of correlation between HER2 expression and CDH1 expression in breast cancer patients, however this correlation was not significant (p&gt;0.05).</p> Martga Bella Rahimi Wirsma Arif Harahap Yanwirasti Yanwirasti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 14 1 1 8 10.31001/biomedika.v14i1.1111 The Utilization of Lamtoro leaves (Leucaena leucocephala L.) Extract as an Alternative Nitrogen Source on The Formation of Nata de Soya Cellulose from Tofu Whey Waste <p>Nata is not only made from coconut water; it is also possible to produce it from other raw materials. In our study, nata de soya has successfully made using tofu whey as raw material. Research focused &nbsp;is on the utilization of lamtoro (<em>Leucaena leucocephala L.</em>) leaves as an alternative source of nitrogen in addition to the use of ammonium sulphate and urea which have generally been used in nata production. The selected research method was experimental. First, the Lamtoro leaves were mashed and then inserted into the medium and cooked until it boils. The medium was incubated at room temperature for 12-14 days and the thickness of the cellulose was then measured. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the using of lamtoro leaf extract (<em>Leucaena leucocephala L</em>.) as an alternative source of nitrogen for nata de soya cellulose formation. The optimization of pH and nitrogen contentration have been obyained. Three types of formula have been arranged, i.e. 1⁄2 of the control nitrogen concentration, equivalent, and 2 times of the control nitrogen concentration, to provide the variation concentration. Results found that the optimum pH was 3 and the optimum nitrogen concentration was ½ of the control nitrogen level. Nata de soya has then prepared using optimum condition of pH and nitrogen concentration.&nbsp; The maximum average of nata de soya thickness was 7.6 mm. In addition to leveraging the ability of medicinal plants and reducing the use of chemicals in the food processing, the use of alternate sources of nitrogen may also be adopted in the wider cellulose nata application.</p> Ummy Mardiana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 14 1 9 18 10.31001/biomedika.v14i1.1162 Analysis of Chemical Components and Antibacterial Activity in Essential Oil of Lantana Flowers (Lantana Camara L) <p>The purpose of this study was to evaluate the essential oil composition as well as antibacterial activities of essential oil of <em>Lantana camara</em> L flowers against four bacterial strains. Essential oil of <em>Lantana camara</em> L flowers was obtained by hydrodistillation method using Sthal and analyzed by GC-MS. The antibacterial activities of essential oil were tested by using disk diffusion method against four bacterial strains. Results showed &nbsp;72 compounds for Lantana flowers essential oil, of which caryophyllene&nbsp; &nbsp;(10,87%),&nbsp; &nbsp;davanone&nbsp; &nbsp;(9.84%),&nbsp; &nbsp;a-humulene&nbsp; &nbsp;(7.59%),&nbsp; &nbsp;a-curcumene (3.35%), germacrene D (3.09%), calarene (2.42%), a-muurolene (2.27%), p-cymene (1.79%), 1,8 cineole (1.59%) , δ-cadinene (1.59%), a-copaene (1.12%), nerolidol B (1%) and ß-ocimene (0.54%) were detected as major components. Antibacterial activity assay of <em>Lantana camara</em> L flowers essential oil was examined against four bacterial strains including Gram (+and-) by using disk diffusion agar method. All the tested Gram (+and-) bacterial strains displayed slight to moderate antibacterial activity (7 – 10 mm) against all concentrations of essential oil. The essential oil of <em>Lantana camara</em> L flowers showed remarkable antibacterial activity with inhibition in concentrations of 10% and 20% against the phatogen bacterias <em>Basillus subtilis</em> (9.6 mm; 10.8 mm), <em>Propionibacterium acnes</em> ( 7.6 mm; 8.7 mm), <em>Eschechia coli</em> ( 8.4 mm ; 9.6 mm) and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> ( 8.3 mm ; 9.3 mm) showed from zone of inhibition that was formed, zone of inhibition in concentration 20% was bigger than concentration 10%.</p> Yulia Shara Sembiring Cut Fatimah Zuhra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 14 1 19 28 10.31001/biomedika.v14i1.1164 The Effectiveness of Ethyl Acetate Extract From Breadfrui (Artocarpus Altilis) Leaves to Inhibit Diarrhea-Causing Bacteria <p>Diarrhea is a health problem that commonly occurs in developing countries. Bacteria that cause diarrhea are among others <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Salmonella typhosa</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. This research aimed to investigate the diameters of inhibition zones of breadfruit leaf (<em>A. altilis</em>) ethyl acetate extract in different concentrations against the growth of <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Salmonella typhosa</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. The research applied an experimental laboratory by using a post-test control group design. This research was performed at the Bacteriology Laboratory of STIKES Nasional by using the diffusion disk method. The research showed the radical zone diameters against <em>Escherichia coli</em> with the concentrations of&nbsp; 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%, &nbsp;were 6.16 mm, 6.41 mm, 6.74 mm, 7.49 mm, and 7.79 mm, respectively.&nbsp; The inhibition zones against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> were 8.15, mm 9.43 mm, 10.29, 10.38 mm and 11.42 mm, while against <em>Salmonella typhosa</em> were 7.94 mm, 8.87 mm, 10.15 mm, 10.26 mm, and 11.23 mm, respectively. The results of the ANOVA test showed the <em>p</em>-value=0.00 and the results of the LSD test revealed the differences in the inhibition effects of <em>A. altilis</em> leaf extract against the growth of <em>E. coli</em>, <em>S. typhosa</em> and <em>S.</em><em> aureus</em>. This study concludes that concentration variations of <em>Artocarpus altilis</em> leaf ethyl acetate extract can inhibit the growth of&nbsp; <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, and <em>Salmonella typhosa</em>.</p> Yusianti Silviani Ardy Prian Nirwana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-05 2021-03-05 14 1 29 35 10.31001/biomedika.v14i1.869 The Sensitivity Test of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Snail Seromucoid and Chitosan in vitro <p>Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection caused by M. tuberculosis (MTb) and is transmitted through droplets of phlegm in the air from patients or those suspected of having TB. In general, treatment for TB is done with anti-tuberculosis drugs (ATDs), specifically streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol (SIRE) that takes a long time due to the level of resistance of MTb bacteria. The resistance of MTb triggers ATDs based on natural bioactive compounds. Chitosan as a result of chitin deacetylation can function as an antimicrobial agent because it is polycationic, which is biodegradable, biocompatible, and non-toxic. Snail (<em>Achatina fulica</em>) seromucoid contains antibacterial bioactive compounds, namely glycans, peptides, glycopeptides, achasin protein, and chondroitin sulfate. This study aims at testing the sensitivity of MTb isolates against snail seromucoid and chitosan in vitro. This research applied the experimental research method. MTb isolates were obtained from sputum samples of patients suspected of TB at the Surakarta Regional Public Hospital (RSUD Surakarta). The results of screening for MTb were positive, based on the microscopic examination of MTb using the Ziehl Nelson (ZN) method, the MPT 64 rapid test, and the quick molecular test using the Genexpert method. The research was completed through several stages, including the preparation of a suspension of germs with a concentration of 1 mg/ml or Mc. Farland 0.5-1.0; preparation of the stock solution and working solution (WS); drug sensitivity test (DST) against snail seromucoid; chitosan and ATDs (SIRE) on Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) media; and incubation at 37°C for 3-4 weeks. The results were interpreted on day 28 or day 42. The results have revealed that MTb isolates are 100% resistant to snail seromucoid and 2% chitosan. This study concludes that MTb isolates from suspected TB are resilient to 100% snail seromucoid and 2% chitosan.</p> Yusup Subagio Sutanto Magdalena Sutanto Agnes Sri Harti Nony Puspawati ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 14 1 36 46 10.31001/biomedika.v14i1.1128 Effect of Ethanol Extract from Clove Flower (Syzygium aromaticum) on the Growth of Trichophyton rubrum in vitro <p>Indonesia is one of the countries with a tropical climate that has high temperature and humidity, a good atmosphere for fungal growth so that fungi can be found somewhere. Fungus <em>Trichophyton rubrum</em> is a fungal disease that attacks the nails, skin, hair. One of the preventions of this disease is by giving traditional medicines, namely clove flowers (<em>Syzygium aromaticum</em>) which contain chemical compounds saponins, tannins, flavonoids. Serves as an antioxidant that can prevent dermatosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the inhibition power of clove flowers (<em>Syzygium aromaticum</em>) on the growth of <em>Trichophyton rubrum</em> fungi. This research was carried out an experimental method with the Kirby Bauer method. Concentration dilution of clove ethanol extract (<em>Syzygium aromaticum</em>) from concentration 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 100%. The results of this study showed that the clove ethanol extract (<em>Syzygium aromaticum</em>) inhibit the growth of <em>Trychophyton rubrum</em> fungus from the concentration of 10% inhibition zone 14 mm, 20% inhibition zone 26 mm, 30% inhibition zone 36 mm, 40% inhibition zone 41 mm, 50% 45 mm inhibition zone, 60% 46 mm inhibition zone, 70% 48 mm inhibition zone, 80% 49 mm inhibition zone, 90% 51.0 mm inhibition zone, 100% inhibition zone of 56 mm.</p> Khusnul Khusnul Pepin Meilani Hildawati Dewi Peti Virgianti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 14 1 47 54 10.31001/biomedika.v14i1.1168