Biomedika <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>JURNAL BIOMEDIKA</strong> is a peer-reviewed open access journal covers basic and advance research in biomedical science, with focus on the biomedical laboratory science and technology research. The journal is published by the Faculty of Health Sciences, Setia Budi University to promote scientific writing and dissemination of knowledge in biomedical laboratory science and technology. Scientific community are encouraged to submit original research articles and reviews with topicsincluding but not limited to clinical chemistry, hematology, cytohistology, immunoserology, microbiology, toxicology, molecular biology, biochemistry, chemical biology, and food analysis. J. Biomedika is open for submission all year round, and published semiannually.&nbsp;This journal also has become a CrossRef Member&nbsp;since March 2019. Therefore, all articles published by this journal will have unique DOI number.&nbsp;<strong>JURNAL BIOMEDIKA&nbsp;</strong>(<em>p-ISSN:</em><em>1979-035X</em><em>, e-ISSN:&nbsp;</em><em>2302-1306</em>) has been published since 2008. Research articles published in the early 2008 that are not listed on this website have been stored on this link&nbsp;<strong></strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Editorial Office :</strong><br><strong>Faculty of Health Sciences&nbsp;<br>Setia Budi University, Surakarta, Indonesia&nbsp;</strong></p> en-US (Dian Kresnadipayana) (Rumaeyda Citra Puspita) Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 The Effectiveness Test of Ethanol Extract of Bougenvillea Leaves in decreasing Total Cholesterol Level on Mice Inducted By High-fat Diet <p><em>Cholesterol is a natural substance with fat-like physical properties that has a steroid group. The increase in cholesterol causes deposition in the walls of blood vessels which can cause narrowing and hardening of the arteries or atherosclerosis which can increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, and tannins in bougainvillea leaves are thought to reduce total cholesterol levels. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of bougainvillea leaf ethanol extract (Bougainvillea spectabilis) to decrease the total cholesterol level of mice (Mus musculus) induced by high-fat diet for 21 days. This study true experimental using 25 male mice (Mus musculus) divided into 5 groups.. In the dose I, II, III treatment group were given bougainvillea leaf ethanol extract with doses of 40 mg/kgBW, 80 mg/kgBB and 160 mg/kgBB, negative controls were given CMC-Na and positive controls were given simvastatin. Giving is done orally for 14 days. The results of the study were analyzed using One-Way ANOVA analysis test and the results obtained p=0,000. Furthermore, the Post Hoc Tukey test was carried out, the results of which were not significantly different between positive controls and dose III. So, the effective dose of ethanol extract of bougenvillea leaves in decreasing total cholesterol levels in mice is dosis III (160 mg/kgBB).</em></p> Rifda Naufa Lina, Sofiyatul Nurul Jannah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of Diarrhoegenic E. coli on Diarrhea Feces Samples at Batulicin and Pagatan Communities Health Centre, Tanah Bumbu District with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Method <p><em>Diarrhoegenic E. coli (DEC) is a group of pathogenic E. coli strains known to be one of the causes of diarrheal disease. Diarrhea cases are still quite high in developing countries like Indonesia. Tanah Bumbu Regency, especially Batulicin and Pagatan, have a fluctuating rate of diarrhea. This study aims to detect DEC in diarrheal patients in the work area of ​​Batulicin and Pagatan Health Centers using the PCR examination method. Cross Sectional research design with a total sample of 15 respondents collected for 3 months (August - October 2019). Stool samples were examined using the PCR method to detect the presence of DEC strains namely EAEC, ETEC, and EPEC and EHEC. Three out of fifteen (20%) samples were known to be positive for Diarrhoegenic E. coli (DEC). ETEC strains were found in 2 (0,13%) sample, each from the Batulicin Health Center and the Pagatan Health Center, while EPEC and EAEC strains were found in the same 1 (0,07%) sample from the Pagatan Health Center. EHEC strain was not detected in all samples. Diarrhogenic E. coli strains found in this study are EAEC, ETEC, and EPEC. However, it cannot be ascertained yet that the three strains are the cause of the diarrheal disease, it needs to be further to do comprehensive research. The community should be able to increase awareness of the importance of clean and healthy behavior, especially food and beverages consumption, so it can reduce the number of diarrhea cases.</em></p> Ika Setianingsih, Dicky Andiarsa, Erli Hariyati ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Antioxidant activity and Vitamin C levels of Fruit Flesh and Dragon (Hylocereus costaricensis) Fruit Syrup <p><em>Research on antioxidant activity and vitamin C levels of dragon fruit and Hylocereus costaricensis dragon fruit syrup from Kulon Progo has been conducted. The purpose of this study was to study the antioxidant activity and levels of vitamin C in dragon fruit meat and dragon fruit syrup from Kulon Progo. The sampling method is done by purposive sampling method. The method of measuring antioxidant activity using DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl Hidrazil) immersion method was measured with a wavelength of 517 nm. The method of determining the level of vitamin C is carried out by the method of titration of Iodimetry using a standard solution of iodine. The results showed that the average antioxidant activity of dragon fruit was 67.81%, whereas in dragon fruit syrup was 42.81%. While the level of vitamin C in dragon fruit is 12.65% while in dragon fruit syrup is 3.667%. Can reduce the levels of antioxidants and vitamin C levels of dragon fruit higher than dragon fruit syrup.</em></p> Titin Aryani, Isnin Aulia Ulfah Mu’awanah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Basil Leaves (Ocimum Basilicum L.) And Kaffir Lime Leaves (Citrus Hystrix D.C) Combination Against Escherichia Coli ATCC 25922 <p><em>Basil essential oil has a component of linalool compounds belonging to terpenoid derivatives which have an antibacterial effect and essential oils of kaffir lime have citronella compounds which can inhibit the growth of various types of bacteria. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of essential oils of basil leaves, kaffir lime leaves and the combination of both against Escherichia coli bacteria ATCC 25922. This study has used diffusion methods to test antibacterial activity. The concentration of the sample was 2% and 4% with a ratio combination of essential oils were 1:1; 1: 2; 2:1. Then the research data were analyzed with two way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results showed that essential oils in the combination of basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum L.) and kaffir lime leaves (Citrus hystrix D.C) had antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 with concentrations of 2% and 4%. Variations of essential oils from basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves and kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix D.C) leaves with a ratio of 1:2 at a concentration of 4% has the greatest inhibitory potential against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 with inhibition diameters of 15.5 mm.</em></p> Fitri Jati Rukmana, Reslely Harjanti, Dyonisius Andang Arif Wibawa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Soursop Fruit Ethanol Extract (Annona Muricata L.) on Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Cholesterol Levels White Rat (Rattus Norvegicus) Hipercolesterolemia <p><em>The cause of Coronary heart disease is an increase caused due to increased cholesterol levels in the blood, so there is a &nbsp;risk of blockage in the blood vessels (atherosclerosis). LDL cholesterol which is abundant in the bloodstream will accumulate in the arteries and potentially cause blockages. Ethanol extract of soursop fruit (Annona Muricata </em>L<em>.) contains antioxidant compounds such as alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids and polyphenols that are needed to increase endurance and prevent various diseases that enter the body.</em> <em>Research has been conducted to determine the effect of soursop fruit ethanol extract (Annona Muricata L.) on Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels white Rat (Rattus Norvegicus) hipercolesterolemia. This research was conducted experimentally with 10 male white rats (Rattus Novergicus, </em>L.<em>), aged 2-3 months with a weight of 150-200 g, which were divided into 2 groups: the control group and the treatment group. Hypercholesterolemia induction is done by giving high fat diet foods for 7 days. Soursop fruit ethanol extract was given in a sonde to the treatment group at a dose of 3.6 mg / 200gBB / day for 14 days and measurements of LDL cholesterol levels were carried out on days 16 and 30 by the CHOD-PAP examination method. Data were analyzed by Paired t-test. The results showed LDL cholesterol levels in the treatment group showed that as many as 5 mice decreased, the mean decreased by 32.49 mg / dl while in the control group as many as 2 mice decreased, the mean decreased by 0.76 mg / dl. There was a significant difference (p &lt;0.05) in changes in LDL cholesterol levels in the treatment group. Soursop fruit etanol extract with 3.6 mg / 200gBB / day for 14 days can reduce LDL cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemia rats.</em></p> Siti Fatimah, Desto Arisandi, Sismawati Sismawati ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Detection Detection Of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) On The Patients Of RSUD Dr. Moewardi surakarta Using Culture Method And Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong></p> <p><em>Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is type of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics, such as meticillin, penicillin, amphycillin, and amoxycillin. The percentage of MRSA occurrence in Indonesia is quite high namely 23.5%. MRSA detection can be done using culture method and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). This research aims to find out the comparison of speed and sensitivity between the culture method and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in detecting Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards the patients of RSUD Dr. Moewardi Surakarta.</em> <em>This research used experimental analytic research design along with comparative research design. This experiment observed 3 samples of bacterial isolates Staphylococcus aureus MRSA suspect patients of RSUD Dr. Moewardi Surakarta. The detection of MRSA was conducted using disk diffusion test of penicillin, amphycillin, amoxycillin and vancomisin as well as using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).</em> <em>The results of the research indicate that Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method was faster and more sensitive to detect Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus on the patients of RSUD Dr. Moewardi Surakarta.</em></p> Siti Nur Arsih, Nony Puspawati, Rizal Maarif Rukmana ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 04 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Difference of Aglutination Degrees in Blood Grouping Test Based on Sample Handling Techniques in Making Red Blood Suspension <p><em>Pre transfusion testing is&nbsp; a very essential part of blood transfusion procedure.&nbsp; In some types of pretransfusion test, suspension of red blood cells is required. This cell suspension is made to optimize the antigen-antibody reaction so that the on going reaction can be clearly observed.&nbsp; The practice of determining blood type needs a suspension of red blood cells, which its washing phase is a time-consuming. The type of sample used can be whole blood with anticoagulants or frozen blood samples. Due to time constraints, the standard procedures were modified. This study aimed to determine the differences in the degree of agglutination of blood type testing based on the handling samples’ techniques in the manufacture of red blood cell suspensions. Blood group testing was done by the tube method on venous blood samples with different sample handling techniques: frozen blood samples without anticoagulants with storage, fresh blood samples with direct addition of 0.9% NaCl, and EDTA anticoagulant blood samples with refrigerator storage 8 - 24 hours at 4<sup>0</sup>C. The number of samples for each type of treatment is 30 samples, and an assessment of the degree of agglutination in the blood group test is carried out by 2 analysts. There were differences in the mean degree of aglutination between the 3 suspensi-making techniques with NaCl samples (Mean = 3.88; SD = 0.32), frozen samples (Mean = 3.93; SD = 0.25), and EDTA samples (Mean = 3.98; SD = 0.13), but the mean differences was not statistically significant (p&gt; 0.05), so it can be concluded that the three types of samples could be used to replace one another as a comparable sample alternative in making red blood cell suspension to measure ABO cell grouping method.</em></p> Lucia Sincu Gunawan, Rumeyda Chitra Puspita ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 04 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Addition of Molasses on Bioethanol Production from Palm Starch Industrial Solid Waste <p><em>Research has been carried out to determine the effect of the addition of molasses to on bioethanol production from palm starch industrial solid waste. The stages of this research were the preparation of raw materials, delignification of palm starch solid waste, lignin content analysis, enzyme production, anaerobic fermentation and ethanol content analysis. Delignification of palm starch solid waste using 3% NaOH solution. Enzyme production is produced from A. Niger and Trichoderma sp. Fermentation using 5 grams of delignified sample added a nutrient solution, a mixture of cellulase enzymes from A. niger and Trichoderma sp. by comparison (1: 2), molasses and Saccharomyces cereviseae. Analysis of ethanol levels was carried out every day until the 6th day. Delignification using 3% NaOH solution can reduce the level of lignin samples up to 17.15%. The addition of molasses containing 35% sugar as a source of sugar in the palm starch solid waste will increase the levels of bioethanol from 0.0904% to 3, 5407%, whereas molasses with 40% sugar content results in lower bioethanol levels. &nbsp;The higher the sugar content, the higher the level of bioethanol, but if the sugar content is too concentrated, it causes a slow fermentation process in the production of bioethanol.</em></p> Dewi Astuti Herawati, Andang Arif Wibawa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Antibacterial Activity Test of Secang Wood (Caesalpinia sappan L.) Ethanolic Extract against Staphylococcus aureus <p><em>Piogenic infection is an infection characterized by the occurrence of severe local inflammation with pus formation (pus). Generally caused by piogenic germs, one of the most common&nbsp; is Staphylococcus aureus. One of the plants used as an ingredient in traditional medicine and used as an anti-bacterial is a secang plant. This study aims to determine the anti-bacterial activity of ethanolic extract of secang wood (Caesalpinia sappan L.) on pure cultivation Staphylococcus aureus Laboratory and isolates pus Hospital patients and find out the difference in inhibition between the two bacterias.300 grams of secang wood powder was extracted by maceration method using 70% ethanol (1:10). Maserate was used to test the anti-bacterial activity of Staphylococcus aureus from pure&nbsp; cultivation laboratory and isolates of pus patients in hospital using diffusion and dilution methods. Then, the results of the diffusion test were analyzed using a two-way Anova test.The results of the study showed that ethanolic extracts of wood have anti-bacterial activity. Result of dilution method showed the value of KBM at a concentration of 3% for Staphylococcus aureus cultivation Laboratory and a concentration of 4% for Staphylococcus aureus isolates pus patients of the Hospital. The statistical analysis of diffusion test results showed that the best concentration in inhibiting the growth of these two bacterias were the concentration of 25% and the sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus from Laboratory pure cultivation and the Pus patients isolate of the Hospital toward extracts were the same.</em></p> Diah Mukti Cahyaningtyas, Nony Puspawati, Rinda Binugraheni ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Larvicidal Activitytest of Ethanolic Extract Of Citronella Grass (Cymbopogon nardus L.) on Culex sp. Larvae III Instar <p><em>Culex sp. larvae is a vector of filariasis. The prevention effort is by controlling the presence of Culex sp. Citronella grass is known to contain secondary metabolite which is useful as plant-based insecticides. This research was conducted to determine the toxicity of the ethanolic extract of citronella grass on the mortality of Culex sp. III instar.The research method used was an experimental method with a completely randomized design (CRD) research design, the treatment that was tried was reagent control; negative control; 250 ppm; 353 ppm; 498 ppm; 702 ppm; 991 ppm; 1397 ppm; 1970 ppm, three replications for each treatment. Variables observed were larvae mortality in various concentrations. Larvae mortality was calculated after 24 hours. The data obtained were analyzed using the kruskal wallis test and the man whitney test with SPSS 21 application to determine the LC<sub>50</sub>value using probit analysis.The results indicate that the ethanolic extract of citronella grass functioned as larvasideonCulex sp. larvae III instar. The higher the concentration of citronella grass extract used, the greater the mortality percentage of Culex sp. larvae. III instar. The concentration of 991 ppm was the most effective concentration and the LC<sub>50</sub>value was 1036,54 ppm. The conclusion of this research is the ethanolic extract of citronella grass (Cymbopogonnardus L.) has larvicidal activity on Culex sp. larvae. III instar.</em></p> Eka Cahya Nugraha, Tri Mulyowati, Rinda Rinda Binugraheni ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000